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GenAI Technology 101 | Glossary

Updated: Feb 3


Transformers are a type of neural network architecture that revolutionized the way AI systems process sequential data, like language. Unlike previous models, they don't require data to be processed in order, allowing for more efficient training and better handling of long-range dependencies in text. Transformer – overcame the limits of RNNs, being able to get much longer sequences of text as input. Transformers are based on the attention mechanism

Transformers are fundamental to the development of sophisticated GenAI models, particularly LLMs. They enable the creation of highly effective language models capable of generating coherent and contextually relevant text, a key aspect of Generative AI.

Attention Mechanism

The attention mechanism is a component of neural networks that allows the model to focus on different parts of the input data, similar to how human attention works. In language tasks, it helps the model to pay attention to relevant parts of the text when generating a response.

In Generative AI, especially in LLMs, the attention mechanism enhances the model's ability to generate relevant and coherent text by effectively managing long-range dependencies in language.

Retrieval Augmented Generation

Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) combines the capabilities of LLMs with an external knowledge retrieval step. This approach allows the model to pull in information from external sources, making the generated content more accurate, informative, and relevant.

RAG represents an advancement in Generative AI, especially in knowledge-intensive applications like question answering and research assistance, where the ability to reference and incorporate external data is crucial.


Vector Database

Vector databases store and manage data in a format optimized for machine learning operations, specifically vector representations of data. In these databases, information is encoded as vectors, which are essentially arrays of numbers representing various features of the data.

In GenAI development, vector databases are crucial for efficiently handling and retrieving the large amounts of vectorized data used in training and operating generative models. They enable quick similarity searches and are essential for managing the vast datasets needed for training sophisticated GenAI applications.

Fine Tuning

Fine tuning is a process in machine learning where a pre-trained model is further trained on a smaller, specific dataset to adapt it to a particular task or context. This approach leverages the generic capabilities of the model and tailors it to specific requirements.

In GenAI, fine tuning is vital for adapting large, general-purpose models (like LLMs) to specific applications or industries. It ensures that the generative outputs are not only high quality but also relevant to the specific context of use.

Structured & Unstructured Data

Structured data is highly organized and easily searchable, often stored in relational databases with defined schemas, like SQL databases. Unstructured data, on the other hand, lacks a predefined format or structure, examples being text, images, and audio.

In GenAI development, both types of data are significant. Structured data helps in training models with clear, labeled information, while unstructured data, especially text and images, is essential for training models to understand and generate human-like content.


Tokens are the basic units of data processed by a generative AI model. In the context of text, a token could be a collection of words or symbols or text. Tokens are central to GenAI, particularly in natural language processing. They allow models to break down and analyze text data at a granular level, enabling the generation of text that is coherent, contextually appropriate, and syntactically correct.

Hugging Face

Hugging Face is a company known for its development of natural language processing (NLP) technologies and tools. They have contributed significantly to the field with their open-source libraries and pre-trained models.

In GenAI, Hugging Face’s tools and models are extensively used for training and deploying generative AI models, especially in the field of NLP. Their resources have made advanced GenAI technologies more accessible to developers and researchers worldwide.

NLP (Natural Language Processing)

NLP is a branch of AI that focuses on enabling computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language. In the realm of GenAI, NLP is foundational. It powers the ability of models to process and generate human-like text, making it essential for applications like chatbots, content creation tools, and language translation services.


Langchain is a framework or library designed to facilitate the integration of language models into applications, making it easier to build complex language-based AI systems. In GenAI development, Langchain can be instrumental in bridging the gap between the capabilities of language models and practical applications, allowing developers to create more sophisticated and interactive GenAI applications efficiently.


In the context of AI, hallucination refers to instances where a model generates incorrect, unrealistic, or nonsensical information, often as a result of being presented with ambiguous inputs or lacking sufficient training data. Addressing hallucination is crucial in GenAI development to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the generated content. It involves refining training processes and model architectures to minimize the occurrence of such errors.

Edge Cases

Edge cases are unusual or extreme conditions that occur outside of normal operating parameters, often not covered in the general training data of a model. In GenAI, handling edge cases is important to ensure the robustness and reliability of AI models. This involves training the models with diverse and comprehensive datasets and incorporating scenarios that test the model's ability to handle rare or unexpected inputs.

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) 

RNNs are neural networks designed for sequential data processing. They excel in tasks where context is key, such as language modeling and speech recognition, by using internal memory to maintain context from previous inputs.

Model Parameter: Temperature 

In neural network models, 'temperature' controls randomness in predictions. A low temperature results in more predictable outputs, while a high temperature increases diversity and creativity at the risk of less coherence.

Embedding Models 

Embedding models transform high-dimensional data (like text) into lower-dimensional vectors, capturing semantic relationships. Essential in natural language processing (NLP), they improve performance in tasks like text classification and machine translation by understanding linguistic nuances.

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